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How to Create a Randomized Layout for Completely Randomized Design (CRD), RCBD, LSD etc. Online?

1. Design of Experimental Techniques

Design of experiments deals with the study of methods for comparing the treatment, varieties, factors, etc. under different experimental situations faced by agricultural research workers.

There are three basic principles of experimental design: i) Replication, ii)Randomization and, iii)Local Control

Replication: Replication means the repeated application of the treatments.

Randomization: Randomization refers to that all the treatments have equal chances of being allocated to different experimental units.

Local Control: It is to make the experimental design more efficient and reduce the experimental error.

Treatment:In experiments, a treatment is something that researchers administer to experimental units.

Factor: A factor of an experiment is a controlled independent variable; a variable whose levels are set by the experimenter or researcher. A factor is a general type or category of treatments. Different treatments constitute different levels of a factor.

2.Types of Experimental Design

  • Single Factor Experiment
  • Multi-Factor Experiment
Single Factor Experiment: In, single factor experiment only a single factor varies while all others are kept constant.

Multi-Factor Experiment:Also known as a factorial experiment. When several factors are investigated simultaneously in a single experiment, such experiments are known as factorial experiments.

Example of single-factor experimental design:

a. Completely Randomized Design (CRD)

When the treatments are arranged randomly over the whole of a previously determined set of experimental units, the design is known as a completely randomized design (CRD). A completely randomized design (CRD) is one where the treatments are assigned completely at random so that each experimental unit has the same chance of receiving any one treatment. CRD is appropriate only for experiments with homogeneous experimental units, such as laboratory experiments, where environmental effects are relatively easy to control.

b. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)

The RCBD is the standard design for agricultural experiments where similar experimental units are grouped into blocks or replicates. Since each block will consist of the entire set of treatments a block is equivalent to a replication. Thus, the block and replication are used synonymously in the case of complete block designs. Suppose the experimental material is divided into r blocks. Let there be t treatments. Each block is then divided into t units and the treatments are allocated within a block at random. The resulting design is called randomized block design (RBD). Treatments are then assigned at random to the subjects in the blocks-once in each block.

c. Latin Square Design (LSD)

LSD is an experimental design in which the experimental material is divided into 'm' rows, 'm' columns, and 'm' treatments - assigned by randomization method to rows and columns. In this method, the randomization is in such a way that each treatment occurs only once in each row and in each column.

3. How to generate a basic experimental design layout (CRD, RCBD, LSD) online?

(Step by Step method)

For any experimental research (like agriculture field research, agriculture lab research), we must always prepare or generate an experimental design. Most of the time we use CRD and/or RCBD experimental design for our research.

In past, we used different software to generate randomized layouts but now we can easily create the randomized layout for an experimental design using the website.

Website Link:

On this website, there is also a provision for generating a data entry sheet based on the randomized plan either in TXT (Text File) or CSV (Comma Separated Values) formats. CSV/TXT files can be opened using any text editor or in MS - Excel. Use the "Datasheet" hyperlink for downloading/opening generated datasheet. Besides the layout, the outline of ANOVA is also shown. See other details on the website.

Sample of the randomized layout prepared using the website:


Step by Step method of using the website:

  1. Open this website link on your browser:

  2. Choose your layout:

    List of layouts you can choose:
    • Completely Randomized Design (CRD)
    • Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)
    • Latin Square Design (LSD)
    • Factorial CRD
    • Factorial RCBD

  3. Fill up all your details:
    Enter your "Number of Treatments"
    Enter your "Number of Replications"

    For Factorial CRD:
    Enter your "Number of Factors"
    Enter your "Levels of Factors"

    For Factorial RCBD:
    Enter your "Number of Factors"
    Enter your "Levels of Factors"
    Enter your "Numbers of Blocks"

  4. Choose "Data Entry Sheet:"

  5. Click "Generate" to generate your layout.
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